Patricia Moussatche's Publications
Kinetic and Spectroscopic Studies of Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase and Putative
Active Site Mutants
Moomaw EW, Hoffer E, Moussatche P, Salerno JC, Grant M, et al.
, Public Library of Science (2013) 8(3): e57933
Ceriporiopsis subvermispora oxalate oxidase (CsOxOx) is the first bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes manganese-dependent oxidation of oxalate. In previous work, we have shown that the dominant contribution to catalysis comes from the monoprotonated form of oxalate binding to a form of the enzyme in which an active site carboxylic acid residue must be unprotonated. CsOxOx shares greatest sequence homology with bicupin microbial oxalate decarboxylases (OxDC) and the 241-244DASN region of the N-terminal Mn binding domain of CsOxOx is analogous to the lid region of OxDC that has been shown to determine reaction specificity. We have prepared a series of CsOxOx mutants to probe this region and to identify the carboxylate residue implicated in catalysis. The pH profile of the D241A CsOxOx mutant suggests that the protonation state of aspartic acid 241 is mechanistically significant and that catalysis takes place at the N-terminal Mn binding site. The observation that the D241S CsOxOx mutation eliminates Mn binding to both the N- and C- terminal Mn binding sites suggests that both sites must be intact for Mn incorporation into either site. The introduction of a proton donor into the N-terminal Mn binding site (CsOxOx A242E mutant) does not affect reaction specificity. Mutation of conserved arginine residues further support that catalysis takes place at the N-terminal Mn binding site and that both sites must be intact for Mn incorporation into either site.
Non-genomic progesterone signalling and its
Moussatche P, Lyons TJ
Biochem Soc Trans
The steroid hormone progesterone regulates many critical aspects of vertebrate physiology. The nuclear receptor for progesterone functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor, directly regulating gene expression. This type of signalling is referred to as the 'genomic' pathway. Nevertheless, progesterone also stimulates rapid physiological effects that are independent of transcription. This pathway, termed 'non-genomic', is mediated by the mPRs (membrane progesterone receptors). These mPRs belong to a larger class of membrane receptors called PAQRs (progestin and adipoQ receptors), which include receptors for adiponectin in vertebrates and osmotin in fungi. mPRs have been shown to activate inhibitory G-proteins, suggesting that they act as GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors). However, PAQRs do not resemble GPCRs with respect to topology or conserved sequence motifs. Instead, they more closely resemble proteins in the alkaline ceramidase family and they may possess enzymatic activity. In the present paper, we highlight the evidence in support of each model and what is currently known for PAQR signal transduction of this non-canonical receptor.
Characterization of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora bicupin oxalate oxidase expressed in Pichia pastoris
Moussatche, P; Angerhofer, A; Imaram, W; Hoffer, E; Uberto, K; Brooks, C; Bruce, C; Sledge, D; Richards, NGJ; Moomaw, EW
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
(2011) May 1;509(1):100-7. Epub 2011 Mar 2
Oxalate oxidase (E.C. 126.96.36.199) catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide in a reaction that is coupled with the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Although there is currently no structural information available for oxalate oxidase from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx), sequence data and homology modeling indicate that it is the first manganese-containing bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes this reaction. Interestingly, CsOxOx shares greatest sequence homology with bicupin microbial oxalate decarboxylases (OxDC). We show that CsOxOx activity directly correlates with Mn content and other metals do not appear to be able to support catalysis. EPR spectra indicate that the Mn is present as Mn(II), and are consistent with the coordination environment expected from homology modeling with known X-ray crystal structures of OxDC from Bacillus subtilis. EPR spin-trapping experiments support the existence of an oxalate-derived radical species formed during turnover. Acetate and a number of other small molecule carboxylic acids are competitive inhibitors for oxalate in the CsOxOx catalyzed reaction. The pH dependence of this reaction suggests that the dominant contribution to catalysis comes from the monoprotonated form of oxalate binding to a form of the enzyme in which an active site carboxylic acid residue must be unprotonated.
Phylogenetic and preliminary phenotypic analysis of yeast PAQR receptors:
potential antifungal targets
Villa NY, Moussatche P, Chamberlin SG, Kumar A, Lyons TJ
J Mol Evol
(2011) Oct;73(3-4):134-52. Epub 2011 Oct 19.
Proteins belonging to the Progestin and AdipoQ Receptor (PAQR) superfamily of membrane bound receptors are ubiquitously found in fungi. Nearly, all fungi possess two evolutionarily distinct paralogs of PAQR protein, which we have called the PQRA and PQRB subtypes. In the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, these subtypes are represented by the Izh2p and Izh3p proteins, respectively. S. cerevisiae also possesses two additional PQRA-type receptors called Izh1p and Izh4p that are restricted to other species within the "Saccharomyces complex". Izh2p has been the subject of several recent investigations and is of particular interest because it regulates fungal growth in response to proteins produced by plants and, as such, represents a new paradigm for interspecies communication. We demonstrate that IZH2 and IZH3 gene dosage affects resistance to polyene antifungal drugs. Moreover, we provide additional evidence that Izh2p and Izh3p negatively regulate fungal filamentation. These data suggest that agonists of these receptors might make antifungal therapeutics, either by inhibiting fungal development or by sensitizing fungi to the toxic effects of current antifungal therapies. This is particularly relevant for pathogenic fungi such as Candida glabrata that are closely related to S. cerevisiae and contain the same complement of PAQR receptors.
Metal dependence of oxalate decarboxylase activity
Moomaw, EW; Angerhofer, A; Moussatche, P; Ozarowski, A; García-Rubio, I; Richards, NG
48 (26) 6116-6125 (2009)
Bacillus subtilis oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) catalyzes the conversion of oxalate into CO2 and formate. The enzyme is composed of two cupin domains, each of which contains a Mn(II) ion. Although there is general agreement that Mn(II) in the N-terminal domain mediates OxDC-catalyzed decarboxylation, legitimate questions have been raised concerning the function (if any) of the Mn(II) bound in the C-terminal cupin domain. We have investigated this problem using a series of OxDC mutants in which Mn(II) binding is perturbed by mutagenesis of Glu-101 and Glu-280, which coordinate the metal in the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, respectively. We now demonstrate that decarboxylase activity and total manganese content are sensitive to modifications in either metal-binding glutamate residue. These findings, in combination with EPR measurements, raise the possibility that the C-terminal Mn(II) center can catalyze the decarboxylation reaction. Further support for this conclusion has been provided from a combination of in vivo and in vitro strategies for preparing wild-type OxDC in which Mn(II) is incorporated to a variety of extents. Kinetic characterization of these variants shows that OxDC activity is linearly correlated with manganese content, as might be expected if both sites can catalyze the breakdown of oxalate into formate and CO2. These studies also represent the first unequivocal demonstration that OxDC activity is uniquely mediated by manganese.
Crystallographic snapshots of oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase give insights into catalysis by nonoxidative ThDP-dependent decarboxylases
Berthold, CL; Toyota, CG; Moussatche, P; Wood, MD; Leeper, F; Richards, NGJ; Lindqvist, Y
15 (7) 853-861 (2007)
Despite more than five decades of extensive studies of thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) enzymes, there remain many uncertainties as to how these enzymes achieve their rate enhancements. Here, we present a clear picture of catalysis for the simple nonoxidative decarboxylase, oxalyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase, based on crystallographic snapshots along the catalytic cycled and kinetic data on active site mutants. First, we provide crystallographic evidence that, upon binding of oxalyl-CoA, the C-terminal 13 residues fold over the substrate, aligning the substrate alpha-carbon for attack by the ThDP-C2 atom. The second structure presented shows a covalent reaction intermediate after decarboxylation, interpreted as being nonplanar. Finally, the structure of a product complex is presented. In accordance with mutagenesis data, no side chains of the enzyme are implied to directly participate in proton transfer except the glutamic acid (Glu-56), which promotes formation of the 1',4'-iminopyrimidine tautomer of ThDP needed for activation.
Structural basis for activation of the thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzyme oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase by adenosine diphosphate
Berthold, CL; Moussatche, P; Richards, NGJ; Lindqvist, Y
J. Biol. Chem.
280 (50) 41645-41654 (2005)
Oxalyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase is a thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzyme that plays an important role in the catabolism of the highly toxic compound oxalate. We have determined the crystal structure of the enzyme from Oxalobacter formigenes from a hemi-hedrally twinned crystal to 1.73 angstrom resolution and characterized the steady-state kinetic behavior of the decarboxylase. The monomer of the tetrameric enzyme consists of three alpha/beta-type domains, commonly seen in this class of enzymes, and the thiamin diphosphate-binding site is located at the expected subunit-subunit interface between two of the domains with the cofactor bound in the conserved V-conformation. Although oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase is structurally homologous to acetohydroxyacid synthase, a molecule of ADP is bound in a region that is cognate to the FAD-binding site observed in acetohydroxyacid synthase and presumably fulfils a similar role in stabilizing the protein structure. This difference between the two enzymes may have physiological importance since oxalyl-CoA decarboxylation is an essential step in ATP generation in O. formigenes, and the decarboxylase activity is stimulated by exogenous ADP. Despite the significant degree of structural conservation between the two homologous enzymes and the similarity in catalytic mechanism to other thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes, the active site residues of oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase are unique. A suggestion for the reaction mechanism of the enzyme is presented.
Autophosphorylation activity of the Arabidopsis ethylene receptor multigene family
Moussatche, P; Klee, HJ
J. Biol. Chem.
279 (47) 48734-48741 (2004)
Receptors for the gaseous phytohormone ethylene show sequence similarity to bacterial two-component histidine kinases. These receptors are encoded by a multigene family that can be divided into subfamilies 1 and 2. It has been previously shown that a subfamily 1 Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene receptor, ETR1, autophosphorylates in vitro on a conserved histidine residue (1). However, sequence comparisons between the five ethylene receptor family members suggest that subfamily 2 members do not have all the motifs necessary for histidine kinase activity. Further, a tobacco subfamily 2 receptor, NTHK1, autophosphorylates on serines and threonines in vitro (2). Here we show that all five Arabidopsis ethylene receptor proteins autophosphorylate in vitro. We analyzed the nature of the phosphorylated amino acids by acid/base stability and bi-dimensional thin layer electrophoresis and demonstrated that unlike ETR1 all other ethylene receptors autophosphorylate predominantly on serine residues. ERS1, the only other subfamily 1 receptor, is able to phosphorylate on both histidine and serine residues in the presence of Mn2+. However, histidine autophosphorylation is lost when ERS1 is assayed in the presence of both Mg2+ and Mn2+, suggesting that this activity may not occur in vivo. Furthermore, mutation of the histidine residue conserved in two-component systems does not abolish serine autophosphorylation, eliminating the possibility of a histidine to serine phosphotransfer. Our biochemical observations complement the recently published genetic data that histidine kinase activity is not necessary for ethylene receptor function in plants and suggest that ethylene signal transduction does not occur through a phosphorelay mechanism.
Susceptible to intolerance - a range of hormonal actions in a susceptible Arabidopsis pathogen response
O'Donnell, PJ; Schmelz, EA; Moussatche, P; Lund, ST; Jones, JB; Klee, HJ
33 (2) 245-257 (2003)
Ethylene and salicylic acid (SA) are key intermediates in a host's response to pathogens. Previously, we have shown using a tomato compatible interaction that ethylene and SA act sequentially and are essential for disease symptom production. Here, we have examined the relationship between the two signals in the Arabidopsis-Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc ) compatible interaction. Preventing SA accumulation by expression of the nahG gene reduced subsequent ethylene production and altered the development of disease symptoms, with plants showing no visible chlorosis. The ethylene insensitive lines, etr1-1 and etr2-1 , on the other hand, accumulated SA and exhibited normal but precocious symptom development. Therefore, Arabidopsis , like tomato, was found to exhibit co-operative ethylene and SA action for the production of disease symptoms. However, in Arabidopsis , SA was found to act upstream of ethylene. Jasmonic acid and indole-3-acetic acid levels were also found to increase in response to Xcc . In contrast to ethylene, accumulation of these hormones was not found to be dependent on SA action. These results indicate that the plants response to a virulent pathogen is a composite of multiple signaling pathways.